Newham covers an area once administered by West Ham and East Ham, both of which were abolished by the same act. The name Newham reflects its creation and combines the compass points of the old boroughs. Newham is located in East London in Inner London with a population of 387,576, which makes it the third largest borough of London and also the 17th most populous district of England. Newham London Borough Council is the local authority.
As a borough of Greater London, the borough was formed on 1 April 1965 under the London Government Act 1963. In general, it covered the areas of the county boroughs of East Ham and West Ham which were abolished by the same law. These in turn were successors to ancient parishes known as East Ham and West Ham. Boundary Road and Green Street were once the boundary between them. Also included in the borough were North Woolwich (previously part of the Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich, south of the Thames) and a small area east of the River Roding that had been part of the Municipal Borough of Barking. Newham was devised for the borough as an entirely new name.
Among the London boroughs, Newham has the third highest population after Barnet and Croydon, with 382,984 people in 2021. While the population has grown since the 1980s, it is still significantly lower than its pre-war peak. Due to war bombings and increasing unemployment, Newham's population shrunk by 28.87% between 1951 and 1981. The redevelopment of Docklands and the 2012 Olympics have contributed to reversing its declining trend.
Retail & Exhibition areas
- Queen's Market – an historic street market
- ICC London – ExCeL – International Conference Centre
- Gallions Reach Shopping Park
- East Shopping Centre – Europe's first purpose-built boutique Asian shopping centre
- Green Street
- Stratford Centre
- Westfield Stratford Shopping Centre.